Four Religions That Originated In India - Chart


RELIGION
COUNTRIES
HISTORY
SCRIPTURES
BELIEFS
FESTIVALS
PRACTICES
HINDUISM
India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bali, Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, West Indies
Name derived from River Sindhu
Originally, Arya Dharma
Vedic Age (2000-600 BC)
Protests Age (600-200 BC)
Epics & Puranas (200 BC-AD 1000)
Bhakti Age (AD 1000-1750)
Modern Age (AD 1750-)

6 Schools of Philosophy: Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Uttara Mimmsa, Purva Mimamsa

Sects: Saivism, Saktism, Vaishnavism
Modern Movements: Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Brahmo Samaj, Guru Cults
Sruti (Vedas); Smriti (Puranas, etc)
Vedas (Rig, Sama, Yajur, Atharva): Consists of Mantras, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads
Itihasas: Ramayana & Mahabharata
Puranas
Bhagavad Gita
Agamas: Manuals of Worship

4 GOALS OF LIFE: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha
4 STAGES OF LIFE: Brahmacharya, Grihasta, Vanaprasta, Sanyasa
3 WAYS OF SALVATION: Jnana, Karma, Bhakti

Karma, Punarjanma, Bhakti
Diwali, Durga Puja, Dasara, Ganapati Puja, Navratri, etc
Temples-Mandir

Puja
Yagna
Yoga
Idol Worship

Ashrama Dharma (4 Stages of Life)
Varna Dharma  (Caste Duty)
BUDDHISM
State religion of Burma, Thailand, Tibet, Cambodia and Laos.
Great following in Sri Lanka, China, Japan, South Korea.
6th c. BC: Birth of Siddhartha, Prince of Kapilavasthu
The 4 Sights: Old man, Sick man, Dead corpse, Hermit
At 29, leaves wife Yasodhara and son Rahul to become a hermit
At 35, attains Enlightenment
At 80, dies at Kusinara on a full-moon day

Sects: Theravada Buddhism: Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand
Mahayana Buddhism: Northern countries
Lamaism and Tantrik Buddhism: Tibet
Zen Buddhism: Japan
Theravada Scriptures in Pali Language
Tripitaka (Three Baskets)
Vinaya-Pitaka (Discipline)
Sutta-Pitaka (Discourse)
Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Metaphysical Basket)

Mahayana Scriptures in Sanskrit
Vinaya
Sutras
Shastras
Four Noble Truths: (a) Dukkha (suffering) is universal (b) Tanha (Desire) is the cause of suffering (c) Nirvana is the state of emancipation (d) 8-Fold Path of Emancipation: Right views, aspirations, conduct, livelihood, efforts, awareness, meditation
Anatta: No-soul. The “I” (ego) is a delusion formed by the 5 skandhas of nama-rupa (name-form): (a) material attributes (rupa) (b) feeling (Vendha) (c) Perception (Samjana) (d) mental dispositions and will (samskaras) (e) Reason (Vijnana)
Karma and Punarjanma:  Karma is the law of cause and effect. Cycle of Samsara: the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
No need of God-hypothesis
Ahimsa: non-violence
Vesak (month of May): Birth of Buddha, Enlightenment, death
Monasticism: bhikkus
Sangha: The monastic order “community”
Mahayana: Worship of Buddhas and goddesses
The Three Refuges (Buddha, Doctrine, Brotherhood of monks)
Offerings, Prayers and Invocations, Transference of Merit, Pilgrimages
Relic Worship
JAINISM
India
599 BC: Birth of Vardhamana (Vaisaliya) in Magadha (Modern Bihar)
After 12 years of penance, attained Keval Jnana (omniscience)

Sects: Svetambara, Digambara

Agamas (Ganipitakas)
Angas (12), Angabahyas
Vows: (1) Not to take life (Ahimsa) (2) Not to lie (Satya) (3) Not to steal (Asteya) (4) Not to own property (Aparigraha) (5) Chastity (Brahmacharya) (6) Confession

Cycle: Utsarpini, Avarsarpini

7 Principles: Jiva, ajiva, asrava, bandha, samvara, nirjara, moksa.

Ajiva (pudgala, dharma, adharma, akasa, kala)+Jiva= 6 substances (dravyas)
Paryushana Parva, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali, Gyana Panchami, Pausha Dashmi, Varshi Tapa, Maun-agiyara, Navapad Oli, Mahamastakabhisheka
Idol Worship of Tirthankaras, Yaksha and Yakshini
Monasticism
Meditation and Chanting of Mantras

SIKHISM
India
15th c. AD: Founded by Guru Nanak (1469–1539)
1539: Guru Nanak chose Lahina (Guru Angad) as successor
Persecution under Aurangazeb
1699 : Rise of Khalsa under Guru Gobind Singh



Guru Granth Sahib
Adi Granth, Dasam Granth, Janamsakhis
Monotheism, Influence of Kabir, Salvation by grace

Kesh, Kanga, Kaccha, Kara, Kripan
Gurpurbs, Visakhi
Gurudwara

Kirtan, Satsang, Langar

Prohibitions: Cutting hair, intoxication, priestly class








© Domenic Marbaniang, 2014

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