NAHI DAR - DOMENIC M (SOLO GUITAR)




LYRICS
Mujhe aapney diya apna pyaar
Jab koyi na tha mera yaar
Jab chaha kisi ne na mujhe
Tu ne chaha tha mujhe
Teri roshni aayi mere liye
Jab charo or tha andhera
Tere pyaar ke kiranon se
Dur hatha hei andhera

Nahi dar, nahi khaunf
Nahi achet, Ashish anek
Tera pyaar se mila

Mere zindagi ke har ek pal
Hei tujh ko hi arpan
Mere zindagi ke har ek khwab
Tujhi ko hi hei samarpan
Teri taakat hi hei mera bal
Teri mahima mera pratifal
Chahe duniya chorh bhi dey
Nahi chorega sath mera

Nahi dar, nahi khaunf
Nahi achet, Ashish anek
Tera pyaar se mila
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NAHI DAR - DOMENIC M (SOLO GUITAR)





LYRICS

Mujhe aapney diya apna pyaar
Jab koyi na tha mera yaar
Jab chaha kisi ne na mujhe
Tu ne chaha tha mujhe
Teri roshni aayi mere liye
Jab charo or tha andhera
Tere pyaar ke kiranon se
Dur hatha hei andhera

Nahi dar, nahi khaunf
Nahi achet, Ashish anek
Tera pyaar se mila

Mere zindagi ke har ek pal
Hei tujh ko hi arpan
Mere zindagi ke har ek khwab
Tujhi ko hi hei samarpan
Teri taakat hi hei mera bal
Teri mahima mera pratifal
Chahe duniya chorh bhi dey
Nahi chorega sath mera

Nahi dar, nahi khaunf
Nahi achet, Ashish anek
Tera pyaar se mila
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Chesterton on Darwin's Missing Link

Excerpt from The Everlasting Man


Sometimes the professor with his bone becomes almost as dangerous as a dog with his bone. And the dog at least does not deduce a theory from it, proving that mankind is going to the dogs-or that it came from them. For instance, I have pointed out the difficulty of keeping a monkey and watching it evolve into a man. Experimental evidence of such an evolution being impossible, the professor is not content to say (as most of us would be ready to say) that such an evolution is likely enough anyhow. He produces his little bone, or little collection of bones, and deduces the most marvelous things from it. He found in Java a piece of a skull, seeming by its contour to be smaller than the human. Somewhere near it he found an upright thigh-bone and in the same scattered fashion some teeth that were not human. If they all form part of one creature, which is doubtful, our conception of the creature would be almost equally doubtful. But the effect on popular science was to produce a complete and even complex figure, finished down to the last details of hair and habits. He was given a name as if he were an ordinary historical character. People talked of Pithecanthropus as of Pitt or Fox or Napoleon. Popular histories published portraits of 'him like the portraits of Charles the First and George the Fourth. A detailed drawing was reproduced, carefully shaded, to show that the very hairs of his head were all numbered. No uninformed person looking at its carefully lined face and wistful eyes would imagine for a moment that this was the portrait of a thigh bone; or of a few teeth and a fragment of a cranium. In the same way people talked about him as if he were an individual whose influence and character were familiar to us all. I have just read a story in a magazine about Java and how modern white inhabitants of that island are prevailed on to misbehave themselves by the personal influence of poor old Pithecanthropus. That the modern inhabitants of Java misbehave themselves I can very readily believe; but I do not imagine that they need any encouragement from the discovery of a few highly doubtful bones. Anyhow, those bones are far too few and fragmentary and dubious to fill up the whole of the vast void that does in reason and in reality lie between man and his bestial ancestors, if they were his ancestors. On the assumption of that evolutionary connection (a connection which I am not in the least concerned to deny), the really arresting and remarkable fact is the comparative absence of any such remains recording that connection at that point. The sincerity of Darwin really admitted this; and that is how we came to use such a term as the Missing Link. But the dogmatism of Darwinian has been too strong for agnosticism of Darwin; and men have fallen into turning this entirely negative term into a positive image. They talk of searching for the habits and habitat of the Missing Link; as if one were to talk of being on friendly terms with the gap in a narrative or the hole in an argument, of taking a walk with a nonsequitur or dining with an undistributed middle. In this sketch, therefore, of man in his relation to certain religious and historical problems, I shall waste no further space on these speculations on the nature of man before he became man. His body may have been evolved from the brutes; but we know nothing of any such transition that throws the smallest light upon his soul as it has shown itself in history.

Unfortunately the same school of writers pursue the same style of reasoning when they come to the first real evidence about the first real men. Strictly speaking of course we know nothing about prehistoric man, for the simple reason that he was prehistoric. The history of the prehistoric man is a very obvious contradiction in terms. It is the sort of unreason in which only rationalists are allowed to indulge. If a parson had casually observed that the Flood was antediluvian, it is possible that be might be a little chaffed about his logic. If a bishop were to say that Adam was Pre-Adamite, we might think it a little odd. But we are not supposed to notice such verbal trifles when skeptical historians talk of the part of history that is prehistoric. The truth is that they are using the terms historic and prehistoric without any clear test or definition in their minds. What they mean is that there are traces of human lives before the beginning of human stories; and in that sense we do at least know that humanity was before history.
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विकासवाद की समस्‍याएं



विकिपीडिया के अनुसार विकासवाद (Evolutionary thought) की धारणा है कि समय के साथ जीवों में क्रमिक-परिवर्तन होते हैं।
जीवों में वातावरण और परिस्थितियों के अनुसार या अनुकूल कार्य करने के लिए क्रमिक परिवर्तन तथा इसके फलस्वरूप नई जाति के जीवों की उत्पत्ति को क्रम-विकास या उद्विकास (Evolution) कहते हैं। क्रम-विकास एक मन्द एवं गतिशील प्रक्रिया है जिसके फलस्वरूप आदि युग के सरल रचना वाले जीवों से अधिक विकसित जटिल रचना वाले नये जीवों की उत्पत्ति होती है। जीव विज्ञान में क्रम-विकास किसी जीव की आबादी की एक पीढ़ी से दूसरी पीढ़ी के दौरान जीन में आया परिवर्तन है। हालांकि किसी एक पीढ़ी में आये यह परिवर्तन बहुत छोटे होते हैं लेकिन हर गुजरती पीढ़ी के साथ यह परिवर्तन संचित हो सकते हैं और समय के साथ उस जीव की आबादी में काफी परिवर्तन ला सकते हैं। यह प्रक्रिया नई प्रजातियों के उद्भव में परिणित हो सकती है। दरअसल, विभिन्न प्रजातियों के बीच समानता इस बात का द्योतक है कि सभी ज्ञात प्रजातियाँ एक ही आम पूर्वज (या पुश्तैनी जीन पूल) की वंशज हैं और क्रमिक विकास की प्रक्रिया ने इन्हें विभिन्न प्रजातियों मे विकसित किया है।

अंग्रेजी लेखक जी.के. चेसटरटन ने एक बार कहा कि जादू और विकासवाद में फर्क केवल समय की अवधी का है। उदाहरण के लिए, यदी कोई आकर आपसे कहे की संगमरमर के किसी खान में जोर का विस्‍फोट हुआ और वहा पर ताजमहल बन गया तो या तो आप उस व्‍यक्ति को झुठा कहेंगे या फिर समझेंगे की यह एक मजाक है। विज्ञान की अलौकिक-विरोधी प्रवृत्ति को जो स्‍वीकार नही करते वे तो इस बात को मानेंगे कि यदी कुछ ऐसा सचमुच हुआ है तो ये किसी का जादूई करिश्‍मा या चमतकार ही होगा।

विकासवाद का मानना है कि यह ताजमहल से भी जटिल संसार कई वर्षों में ब्रहमाण्‍ड में विस्‍फोटों और मिश्रनों का संयोग हैं। मानों सैकडों बंदर कम्‍प्‍यूटर पर अंधाधुंद हाथ चलाते चलाते कई शताब्‍दियों के पश्‍चात अचानक कालीदास के शकुंतला को लिख डाला। फर्क यही होता कि कालीदास को मालूम था कि वह क्‍या लिख रहा है परन्‍तु बनदरों को मालूम नही कि उनसे क्‍या रच गया। विकासवाद अंधा जगतीय संयोग पर आधारित है। इसलिए सार्त्र, कैमु, और नित्‍सचे जैसे लेखकों ने विकासवाद के संसार में मानव अनुभव को अर्थहीन और अनर्थक कहा है। नैतिक मूल्‍य,सत्‍य,न्‍याय ये सब बेअर्थ है। जगत का कोई बुद्धिमान स्रोत नही है तो जगत में बुद्धि का जि़कर एक मजाक ही है।

विकासवाद की समस्‍याएं कई है, उनमें से निम्‍न कुछ है।


1. विकासवाद तर्क के जमीन को उसके पांव तले से हटा कर सत्‍य के अस्तित्‍व को नकारता है। परन्‍तु सत्‍य के अस्तित्‍व को नकार कर वह सत्‍य पर दावे का अधिकार को खो देता है।
यदी संसार अकास्मित मिश्रनों का संयोग है,तो सत्‍य निरपेक्ष नही हो सकता क्‍योंकि जगत की क्रियाएं तो परिवर्तनशील है परन्‍तु सत्‍य परिवर्तनशील नही हो सकता। सत्‍य रविवार, सोमवार, और हर एक दिन एक समान ही है। परन्‍तु विकासवाद के अनुसार मानव मस्तिष्‍क अनुओं के अकास्मित मिश्रनों का संयोग है। इसलिए सत्‍य का अस्तित्‍व निराधार हो जाता है। लेकिन यदी सत्‍य का अस्तित्‍व नही है तो विकासवादी कैसे कह सकता है कि विकासवाद सत्‍य है? 

2. ऊष्मा-गतिकी के दुसरे नियम के अनुसार जगत में ह्रास ही स्‍वाभाविक है। यदी एक झोपडी को ऐसा ही छोड़ दिया जाए तो कुछ वर्ष पश्‍चात वह अपने आप कोई महल नही बन जाएगा। उसके विपरीत वह खंडहर बन जाएगा। पुन: क्षय से उसे वापस लाने के लिये बुद्धि और शक्ति की आवश्‍यक्‍ता है। परन्‍तु विकासवाद इस नियम के विरुद्ध में कहता है कि जगत में ह्रास नही परन्‍तु विकास स्‍वाभाविक है।
3. खोई कडियों की समस्‍या। यदी मछली से मैंडक का विकास हुआ और वानर से मनुष्‍य आए तों इन के मध्‍य के कडी कहा गए? वानर-मानव कही दिखते क्‍यों नही? उनका कही कोई जीवावशेष कही नही मिले। नियान्‍डरथल, जावा,इत्‍यादी सब मनुष्‍य जाती के ही अवशेष साबित हुए। पिल्‍टडाउन तो धोखा साबित हुआ।
4. विकासवाद का कोई यंत्र नही पता। विज्ञान अवलोकन और प्रायोगिक प्रमाण पर आधारित है। लेकिन न तो विकासवाद की कोई उपमा देखी जा सकती है न प्रयोग के द्धारा इसे साबित किया जा सकता है। यदी विकास का यंत्र पता होता तो न जाने कितने वानरों को मनुष्‍य... बनादिया जाता। यदी विकासवादी पुस्‍तकों को पढ़ें तो साफ लिखा जाता है कि जिस काल में विकास क्रम हुए, उस काल के वातावरण को हम नही जानतें। लेकिन यह तो अनुमान और कल्‍पना का एक बहाना ही है, विज्ञान नही।
और फिर, हमें यह तो मालूम ही है कि बिना जीवन या प्राण के डी.एन.ए. व्‍यर्थ है। अर्थात बिना जीवन के पदार्थ कें जटिल मिश्रनों से कुछ होने वाला नही। इसके अलावा बिना जीवन का डी.एन.ए का निर्माण ही असम्‍भव है।

© डॉ. डॉमेनिक मर्बनियांग


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Problems of Evolutionism


The Problem of Truth As An Absolute Category (Ravi Zacharias)


Ravi: Do you believe that Time, Matter, and Chance created your brain?....
Scientist: Yes.
Ravi: If Time, Matter, and Chance created the human brain, then Truth as an absolute category cannot exist. For, in order for something to be true, it must be true on Sunday, on Monday... But, with the constant flux and fluctuation of Time, Matter, and Chance, all changing, Truth as an absolute category cannot exist.
Scientist: I believe that's right.
Ravi: But, if Truth as an absolute category doesn't exist, then how do you know that it is true that Time, Matter, and Chance created your brain?
____

If Randomness (Chance) and not Intelligence (God) produced the universe, then Truth could not absolute, since "knowledge" whatever it is would be the product of a random collocation of atoms constantly in flux; and, flux being the underlying principle of evolutionism, absolutes become meaningless. But, if Truth doesn't exist, then one doesn't even have the right to say that something is absolutely truth, e.g. evolutionism. Therefore, evolutionism is self-defeating.



The Problem of Scientific Authenticity


Oxford Dictionary defines Science as "the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment". In order for a theory to be scientific in nature, it must be based on observation and experiment. For example, Newton OBSERVED the apple falling from the tree, then formed the THEORY of gravity, which was proven as (at least instrumentally) true by EXPERIMENT (yet, the theory is not an absolute because it's contrary, Einstein's theory of gravity is quite different, yet experimentally "proven"). Evolutionism is neither based on observation (e.g. of fish evolving into frogs in species evolution) nor experiment.

Someone once noted that there are four great problems of evolutionism:
1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics or the Law of Entropy. This Law states that the usable energy of the universe is decreasing; therefore, degradation and not evolution is the principle underlying the processes of the universe. Development only occurs where intelligence is present. Life and intelligence (including DNA) go together.
2. Missing Links. There isn't any evidence that a species evolved into another. No fossil of an ape-man or a fish-reptile have been found. There are not sufficient reasons to theorize that Neanderthal man, Java man, and Peking man were intermediaries between apes and humans. The Piltdown Man was a hoax (Check these articles Piltdown (wikipedia); Neanderthal (ICR)
3. No Known Mechanism. There is no known mechanism of evolution. It is not known because it cannot be observed, and unless one observes something happening (e.g. evolution actually taking place). See the following video:
4. Growing evidences for a young earth. Evolutionism claims eons of time taken for evolution to take place (e.g. hundreds of monkeys randomly hitting on a computer keyboard produced Shakespeare's The Tempest in eons of time). But, there are growing evidences for a young earth. (See Evidence for a Young Earth; Evidence for a Young Earth from the Ocean and Atmosphere by L. Vardiman, PhD)



The Problem of Ethics

If evolutionism is true, then Justice, Courage, and Temperance are invalidated and moral questions become nonsensical. The moral sense is absurd. The serious consequences of such absurdity has been well portrayed by Steve Turner.

Turner's Creed as Quoted by Ravi Zacharias
We believe in Marx, Freud and Darwin
We believe everything is OK
as long as you don't hurt anyone
to the best of your definition of hurt,
and to the best of your knowledge.

We believe in sex before, during, and
after marriage.
We believe in the therapy of sin.
We believe that adultery is fun.
We believe that sodomy’s OK.
We believe that taboos are taboo.

We believe that everything's getting better
despite evidence to the contrary.
The evidence must be investigated
And you can prove anything with evidence.

We believe there's something in horoscopes
UFO's and bent spoons.
Jesus was a good man just like Buddha,
Mohammed, and ourselves.
He was a good moral teacher though we think
His good morals were bad.

We believe that all religions are basically the same-
at least the one that we read was.
They all believe in love and goodness.
They only differ on matters of creation,
sin, heaven, hell, God, and salvation.

We believe that after death comes the Nothing
Because when you ask the dead what happens
they say nothing.
If death is not the end, if the dead have lied, then its
compulsory heaven for all
excepting perhaps
Hitler, Stalin, and Genghis Kahn

We believe in Masters and Johnson
What's selected is average.
What's average is normal.
What's normal is good.

We believe in total disarmament.
We believe there are direct links between warfare and
bloodshed.
Americans should beat their guns into tractors .
And the Russians would be sure to follow.

We believe that man is essentially good.
It's only his behavior that lets him down.
This is the fault of society.
Society is the fault of conditions.
Conditions are the fault of society.

We believe that each man must find the truth that
is right for him.
Reality will adapt accordingly.
The universe will readjust.
History will alter.
We believe that there is no absolute truth
excepting the truth
that there is no absolute truth.

We believe in the rejection of creeds,
And the flowering of individual thought.

If chance be
the Father of all flesh,
disaster is his rainbow in the sky
and when you hear:

State of Emergency!

Sniper Kills Ten!

Troops on Rampage!

Whites go Looting!

Bomb Blasts School!

It is but the sound of man worshipping his maker.
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Evolutionism & Living Reality

From Marbaniang, Domenic. Philosophy of Science, 2007, 2011 (Amazon; Lulu, ITunes)


Evolutionism concerns the problem of the origin and nature of living reality. Evolutionism, in science, refers to the theory that ‘the many complex organisms now existent descended or evolved from relatively fewer and simpler organisms.’[1] The hypothetical nature of evolutionism, despite accruement of evidences in support yet inability to verify in prediction or through experimentation, has led some to label it as being not a scientific theory but a philosophical one.[2]

Supposed evidence for organic evolution comes from comparative anatomy, study of vestigial remains, embryology, blood and fluid tests of animals, examination of fossils, study of geographical distribution, domestication and experimentation, and classification.[3]

The theory of evolution doesn’t simply end at ‘the fewer and simpler organisms’. The ultimate problem is how life itself originated. The religious or purely philosophical answers do not concern scientific metaphysics. However, though evolutionism has been labeled sometimes as religious and sometimes as philosophical, its claim to an empirical scientific methodology, generally allots it a place in physical anthropology. According to Duane T. Gish, the General Theory of Evolution is the ‘theory that all living things have arisen by naturalistic, mechanistic processes from a single primeval cell, which in turn had arisen by similar processes from a dead, inanimate world.’[4]

Critics of evolution theory have pointed out that it fails to meet the criteria of a scientific theory. To Gish, for instance its failure consists in not being observed, not being subject to experimentation, and assuming the form of non-falsifiability.[5] Further, a verifiable prediction on the basis of evolution theory has never been successfully made and verified because an adequate theory to explain the mechanism has never been given. In fact, in order for such a theory to even exist, evolution must be first observed, which has never been the case. Therefore, evolutionism cannot be regarded as science, at least in the sense in which all other scientific theories are concerned. However, as relevant to the subject and science and also philosophy, the fundamental assumptions of evolutionism need to be examined.

Evolutionism assumes that life is material. In other words, life is all about a right arrangement of atoms and molecules. On the basis of this assumption, it is supposed that a mixture of certain gases, energy, and water could have given rise to certain organic substances, like amino acids (the building blocks of proteins, including the all-important enzymes that control the chemical processes of life), and purines and pyrimidines (the building blocks of RNA and DNA).[6]Consequently, the sea would have become a ‘soup’ of prebiological organic compounds which would become conducive to the generation of some kind of a replicator that played a crucial role in the development of cells and the origin of life. What all these substances and replicators are is unknown to science. How all this happened is unknown to science.

However, evolutionists seem to be sure that though they are not sure how this all happened, they are at least sure that it has so happened, although they have never observed it happening. Such kind of an approach seems to be too superstitious to some. But all of this proceeds out of a materialistic outlook that not only looks at the world as a machine but also looks at the organism also as a machine. Life, then, is not some spiritual element within the organism. It is simply the animation or growth caused in a material body due to some programmed materials that chanced to happen at random. The strength of belief in evolutionism despite such uncertainty in providing adequate scientific explanations cannot qualify evolutionism as a philosophy, which seeks not mere speculation but argument and reasoning to establish the absoluteness of truth. Consequently, theories that are based on evolutionism also may be as unreliable as evolutionism since it itself stands on uncertainty.


[1] Milton D. Hunnex, Chronological and Thematic Charts of Philosophies and Philosophers (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1986), p. 17
[2] Harry Rimmer, The Theory of Evolution and the Facts of Science (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1935), p. 18
[3] Titus, Smith, and Nolan, Living Issues in Philosophy, p. 33
[4] Duane Tolbert Gish, “Creation, Evolution and Public Education,” Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, 4th edn. (eds. John R. Burr & Milton Goldinger;New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1984), p. 458
[5] Ibid, p. 459
[6] “Evolution,” Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (Microsoft Corporation, 2001)
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Who is an Apostle? - A Study

"And He Himself gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers" (Ephesians 4:11)

The apostle is a gift given by Jesus Christ to the Church. It is a calling. There is a belief that the office of apostleship discontinued with the 12 apostles. However, the Bible doesn't teach that.

The 12 Apostles

The 12 apostles (with Mattias as the 12th in place of Judas) were foundational to the early Church. The Bible tells us that the Church is founded on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ being the Chief Cornerstone.
Eph 2:20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone,
Therefore, faithfulness of the Church was judged by their faithfulness to the apostles' doctrine. See the following verses:
Act 2:42 And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers.
2Pe 3:2 that you may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us, the apostles of the Lord and Savior,
Jud 1:17 But you, beloved, remember the words which were spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ:
The 12 apostles along with the elders (among whom was James, the brother of Jesus) at Jerusalem had authoritative position in all matters of doctrine pertaining to the Church universal.
Act 15:2 Therefore, when Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and dispute with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas and certain others of them should go up to Jerusalem, to the apostles and elders, about this question.
Act 15:4 And when they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the church and the apostles and the elders; and they reported all things that God had done with them.
Act 15:6 Now the apostles and elders came together to consider this matter.
Act 15:22 Then it pleased the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, namely, Judas who was also named Barsabas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren.
Though Paul and Barnabas were apostles who were first sent from Antioch, where they returned and remained, they came to Jerusalem when the dissension arose.

When Philip preached in Samaria, it was the apostles from Jerusalem who came and established things there (See Acts 8).



Paul, Barnabas, Silas and others

We read of Paul, Barnabas, and Silas in Acts 13 as:
Act 13:1 Now in the church that was at Antioch there were certain prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul.
But, after the Church had prayed for them and sent them according to the will of the Holy Spirit, they are referred to as apostles in Chapter 14:
Act 14:4 But the multitude of the city was divided: part sided with the Jews, and part with the apostles.
Act 14:14 But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard this, they tore their clothes and ran in among the multitude...
Paul makes it clear that an apostle is not ordained by any church. One cannot be ordained as an apostle. An apostle is Christ's gift to the Church (Eph.4:11).
Gal 1:1 Paul, an apostle (not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised Him from the dead),
He refers himself as an apostle many times and talks of himself as an apostle to the Gentiles:
Rom 11:13 For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles
He also talks of the signs of an apostle.




Who is an Apostle?

An apostle is neither someone who claims by himself to be an apostle nor a title that someone can assume. It is a calling and the true apostle shall be known by their fruits.
For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into apostles of Christ. And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also transform themselves into ministers of righteousness, whose end will be according to their works. (2Co 11:13-15)
How was Paul able to discern these as false apostles?
Of course, by their fruits, their works. They were "deceitful workers".

In contrast, see the work style of Paul:
For our exhortation did not come from error or uncleanness, nor was it in deceit. But as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, even so we speak, not as pleasing men, but God who tests our hearts. For neither at any time did we use flattering words, as you know, nor a cloak for covetousness--God is witness. Nor did we seek glory from men, either from you or from others, when we might have made demands as apostles of Christ. But we were gentle among you, just as a nursing mother cherishes her own children. So, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you not only the gospel of God, but also our own lives, because you had become dear to us. For you remember, brethren, our labor and toil; for laboring night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. You are witnesses, and God also, how devoutly and justly and blamelessly we behaved ourselves among you who believe... (1Thess 2:3-10)
So, who is an apostle?

1. An apostle is someone sent (Gk. apostolos) by Jesus Christ to bear witness of Him (Matt 28:18ff; Acts 1:8; Gal.1:16)
2. An apostle possesses apostolic authority (Acts 5; 2Cor 13:10)
"according to the authority which the Lord has given me for edification and not for destruction." 2Cor 13:10).
3. An apostle preaches the Gospel with the demonstration of power.
2Co 12:12 Truly the signs of an apostle were accomplished among you with all perseverance, in signs and wonders and mighty deeds.

1Co 2:4 And my speech and my preaching were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power,
1Co 2:5 that your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.

Heb 2:3 how shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation, which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by those who heard Him,
Heb 2:4 God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will?
4. An apostle lays, with the authority of Christ, the foundation of a church through the expounding of the Gospel, the establishment of faith, doctrine, and order in the Church.
Eph 2:20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone,
Act 15:41 And he went through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the churches.
Rom 15:20 And so I have made it my aim to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build on another man's foundation,
1Co 3:10 According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master builder I have laid the foundation, and another builds on it. But let each one take heed how he builds on it.
1Co 3:11 For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
Heb 6:1-2 the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
He may remain in a place for a very long time till the church there is fully established and till the Holy Spirit wishes him to move.

5. An apostle is has the authority of a spiritual father over those who have been established in faith through him. He is the one whom the church imitates.
For though you might have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet you do not have many fathers; for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel. Therefore I urge you, imitate me. (1Co 4:15-16)
In that area, he is more important than ten thousand instructors or teachers who come and go.

6. An apostle has concern for the local churches (not one but many that he has founded).
2Co 11:28 besides the other things, what comes upon me daily: my deep concern for all the churches.
7. The apostle is known by his works. His work is the seal of his apostleship.
1Co 9:1 Am I not an apostle? Am I not free? Have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? Are you not my work in the Lord?
1Co 9:2 If I am not an apostle to others, yet doubtless I am to you. For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.
2Co 3:1-3 Do we begin again to commend ourselves? Or do we need, as some others, epistles of commendation to you or letters of commendation from you? You are our epistle written in our hearts, known and read by all men; clearly you are an epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of flesh, that is, of the heart.
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The Word Bibles (Non-English)

You can download the latest version of TheWord software here
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The Death of Herod Agrippa I (Luke in Acts 12 & Josephus Flavius inAnt.)

Agrippa I also known as Herod Agrippa or simply Herod (10 BCE - 44 CE), King of the Jews, was the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice. His original name was Marcus Julius Agrippa, so named in honour of Roman statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and he is the king named Herod in the Acts of the Apostles, in the Bible, "Herod (Agrippa)" (Ἡρώδης Ἀγρίππας). He was, according to Josephus, known in his time as "Agrippa the Great."

His death is mentioned in Acts 12 in the words "an angel of the Lord struck him, because he did not give glory to God. And he was eaten by worms and died." Modern scholars believe he might have died of Fournier's gangrene, a kidney disease, the same that also killed his grandfather Herod the Great (See CNN article).



Luke: Acts 12:20-23

Now Herod had been very angry with the people of Tyre and Sidon; but they came to him with one accord, and having made Blastus the king's personal aide their friend, they asked for peace, because their country was supplied with food by the king's country. So on a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat on his throne and gave an oration to them. And the people kept shouting, "The voice of a god and not of a man!" Then immediately an angel of the Lord struck him, because he did not give glory to God. And he was eaten by worms and died.



Josephus: Antiquities 19:8:2

Now when Agrippa had reigned three years over all Judea, he came to the city Cesarea, which was formerly called Strato’s Tower; and there he exhibited shows in honor of Caesar, upon his being informed that there was a certain festival celebrated to make vows for his safety. At which festival a great multitude was gotten together of the principal persons, and such as were of dignity through his province. On the second day of which shows he put on a garment made wholly of silver, and of a contexture truly wonderful, and came into the theater early in the morning; at which time the silver of his garment being illuminated by the fresh reflection of the sun’s rays upon it, shone out after a surprising manner, and was so resplendent as to spread a horror over those that looked intently upon him; and presently his flatterers cried out, one from one place, and another from another, (though not for his good), that he was a god; and they added, “Be thou merciful to us; for although we have hitherto reverenced thee only as a man, yet shall we henceforth own thee as superior to mortal nature.” Upon this the king did neither rebuke them, nor reject their impious flattery. But as he presently afterward looked up, he saw an owl sitting on a certain rope over his head, and immediately understood that this bird was the messenger of ill tidings, as it had once been the messenger of good tidings to him; and fell into the deepest sorrow. A severe pain also arose in his belly, and began in a most violent manner. He therefore looked upon his friends, and said, “I, whom you call a god, am commanded presently to depart this life; while Providence thus reproves the lying words you just now said to me; and I, who was by you called immortal, am immediately to be hurried away by death. But I am bound to accept of what Providence allots, as it pleases God; for we have by no means lived ill, but in a splendid and happy manner.” When he said this, his pain was become violent. Accordingly he was carried into the palace, and the rumor went abroad every where, that he would certainly die in a little time. But the multitude presently sat in sackcloth, with their wives and children, after the law of their country, and besought God for the king’s recovery. All places were also full of mourning and lamentation. Now the king rested in a high chamber, and as he saw them below lying prostrate on the ground, he could not himself forbear weeping. And when he had been quite worn out by the pain in his belly for five days, he departed this life, being in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and in the seventh year of his reign....
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Glossolalia - Speaking in Tongues

In 1972, William J. Samarin, a linguist from the University of Toronto, published a thorough assessment of glossolalia (the phenomena of "speaking in tongues" among pentecostals and charismatics). He concluded that it was "neither internally organized nor systematically related to the world man perceives".

Of course, if it could be, then it would be open for linguistic dicepherment and would no longer fall under the class of "unknown tongues" or "mysteries"!!

"For he who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men but to God, for no one understands him; however, in the spirit he speaks mysteries." (1Cor.14:12)
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FREE Outline of Christian Theology E-Book for Mobiles

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This booklet of around 6200 words gives a quick glance at the major doctrines of the Bible and a general outline of theology. The main subjects are Bibliology, Theology Proper, Christology, Pneumatology, Trinity, Creation, Anthropology, Angelology and Demonology, Atonement, Soteriology, Ecclesiology, and Eschatology.
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Questions & Answers Regarding the Lord's Supper



Is the Lord's Supper the same as the Passover?


No, it is not. The Passover was a Jewish feast that was, and is still, celebrated among the Jews to commemorate their deliverance from Egypt. It was instituted by Moses and was celebrated once in a year. The Lord’s Supper, however, was instituted by Jesus and as the symbol of His Covenant with us. It can be observed as often as the Church of the Lord at a place comes together to remember Him and proclaim His death.
“…do this in remembrance of Me.”
“This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.”
“For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes” (1Cor.11:24,25,26)

Who can eat of the Lord's Supper?


Someone with the following qualifications:
1. One who is part of the believing community (the Church); i.e. someone who can “come together as a church” (1Cor.11:18).
2. One who can remember the Lord; i.e. who has a personal relationship with the Lord and has identified with His sacrificial death (1Cor.11:24).
3. One who can proclaim or testify of or speak and teach about the Lord’s death; i.e. someone who understands the doctrine of atonement and knows that he is saved so that he speaks not from mental knowledge but from experiential understanding (1Cor.11:26)
4. One who can have and has reverence for the Lord’s Table; so that he can eat in a reverent manner (1Cor.11:27).
5. One who is not an infant or of such age in which he doesn’t know the difference between good and evil; one who can have a legally responsible status so that “guiltiness” and “justification” are terms applicable to him (1Cor.11:27).
6. One who has examined himself (1Cor.11:28).
7. One who can discern the Lord’s body (1Cor.11:29).

Is baptism for the remission of sins necessary before one can partake of the Lord's Supper?


Yes, it is. For, without the baptism for the remission of sins one cannot be a disciple of Christ. The Lord Jesus Christ ordained these two ordinances for the Church: Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. One cannot partake of the table and of the Body of the Lord unless one is first washed already.
Peter said to Him, “You shall never wash my feet!”
Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me.” Simon Peter said to Him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!” Jesus said to him, “He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean…” (John 13:8-10)

An example of the sequence is given here:

  • all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,

  • all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink.  For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. (1Cor 10:2-4)

Can children partake of the Lord’s Supper?


If the child fulfills the above qualifications, is of discerning age, has reverence, and is baptized and living a worthy life of a believer.

In response to those who contend that the children of believing parents are already part of the Covenant by birth, even as the Jewish children were part of the Covenant by birth, it must be said that
1. The Jewish children only become part of the Old Covenant through circumcision and not without it.
2. No one is saved or born again except through personal faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and obedience to the Faith. The analogy applies, A child born in a garage is not born a mechanic.

Where should the Lord’s Supper be eaten?


1. Wherever the Church can come together in one place for fellowship as a church (1Cor.11:18,20, 22).
2. It implies (for the term “as a Church” is used) where the leadership (elders, deacons) is present.

Can it be eaten at one’s own home apart from the general fellowship?


In exceptional cases, for example in a place where there are no Christians except only one family. However, where there is more than one believing family, the principle of “coming together” is binding and must not be neglected; because the Bread talks about the unity of the Body of Christ. No element of division or pretence of special approval from God is permitted in the Body of Christ (1Cor.11:18,19). One must learn to “wait” for the other (1Cor.11:21). All this implies that the Lord’s Table is not something that is meant for personal home practice but is an ordinance for the believing community as a whole in one place. Therefore, the Bible says,
Don't you have homes to eat and drink in? [Which means that the Lord's Supper was not eaten personally at homes] Or do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you for this? Certainly not! (1Cor.11:22)

The Lord’s Table is the place where believers, whether they are rich or poor, come and have an equal share. It is the Lord’s Table and is established for the believing community as a whole.

How often should the Lord’s Supper be eaten?


As often as the Church can come together as a Church; and it is possible that the ordinance be observed.
In the New Testament times, the Church used to gather on the first day of the week (Sunday).
“Now on the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread…” (Acts 20:7; see also 1Cor.16:2  for Sunday gathering)

Is the Lord's Supper meant for healing of body?


With regard to healing, the Bible specifies that
Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up. And if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much. (James 5:14-16)

If someone has sinned against the Lord’s Table and so is sick due to the Lord’s chastening, then he can call for the elders of the Church and confess and be prayed for.

But, nowhere does the Bible teach that the Lord’s Supper is for healing of the body. It is only an ordinance in remembrance and proclamation of the death of our Lord for our sins. It is one thing if the Lord choses to heal someone through his/her partaking of the table; but it is sinful to try to treat the sacred bread and wine like some kind of magical symbol to health and happiness. The Bible has only commanded prayer, confession of sins, anointing with oil, and laying on of hands for healing. Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are not for the purpose of physical healing, but because of one’s identity with the Lord in His death and resurrection.

Is the Lord’s Supper meant for salvation?


No, it is for those who are saved and sanctified by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Does the bread become flesh and the wine become the blood of Jesus?


No, they are only symbols of His flesh and His blood. And, so, they must be treated as His flesh and His blood. Thus, though, physically, one is partaking of the bread and the wine, the communion is not physical but is spiritual and one is partaking of the Body of Christ, spiritually speaking.

What do the bread and the wine signify?


The Bread signifies the Body of the Lord and the Wine signifies His Blood. They together signify the New Covenant that the Lord made with the Church,

A Covenant which He made by His sacrificial death on the cross.
A Covenant that forever blots out all sins and writs of the Law against us.
A Covenant that forever abolishes the old system of sacrifices and observances of the Old Covenant.
A Covenant that brings Eternal Life, and Eternal Inheritance in heaven.
A Covenant that breaks down all walls of barriers between the Jew and the Gentiles and brings all together to God in the one Body.

Can rice and tea be used instead of bread and wine?


No, Biblical symbols cannot be replaced.

Can Rice Bread (made from rice flour) be used instead of Wheat Bread?


The Bible doesn’t specify what kind of grain should be used for making the bread. The Greek word artos usually was used for barley-bread which was the poor man’s bread. I don’t yet find any reason why rice bread cannot be used as long as the bread is a whole symbolizing unity of the body.

Who is authorized to administer the Lord’s Supper? Can anyone, any believer, administer that?


At the first Lord’s Supper, it was Jesus who broke bread and gave it to the disciples.
In Acts 20:11 we read of Paul who broke bread on the first day of the week at Troas.
Paul’s statement in 1Corinthians 11:23 implies that he used to break the bread among them: “For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you..”

So, it is obvious that an elder appointed by the Lord as overseer of the local flock is supposed to lead the observance of the ordinance.

A glimpse into the Early Church practice of the Lord’s Supper is obtained from Justin Martyr who lived between 103-165 AD; in his First Apology, he wrote:
Chap. LXV.—Administration of the Sacraments. But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] person, and for all others in every place, that we may be counted worthy, now that we have learned the truth, by our works also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments, so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation. Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. This word Amen answers in the Hebrew language to γένοιτο [so be it]. And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion.
Chap. LXVI.—Of the Eucharist. And this food is called among us Εὐχαριστία [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, “This do ye in remembrance of Me, (Luke 22:19) this is My body;” and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, “This is My blood;” and gave it to them alone.
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What Does it Mean to Tempt God?

Peter asked her, "Tell me, is this the price you and Ananias got for the land?"
"Yes," she said, "that is the price."
Peter said to her, "How could you agree to test the Spirit of the Lord? Look! The feet of the men who buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out also." (Acts 5:8-9)

Trying to tempt God is a serious crime in the Scripture. When the devil came to Jesus and told Him to throw Himself off the pinnacle of a temple so that God would be bound to release His angels to bear Him up, Jesus replied:

"It is written again, "You shall not tempt the LORD your God." (Matthew 4:7)

The Bible makes it very clear that God is not tempted; "for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone" (James 1:13). In fact, the Bible is very stringent against those who try to tempt anyone:

Jesus said to his disciples: "Things that cause people to sin are bound to come, but woe to that person through whom they come. It would be better for him to be thrown into the sea with a millstone tied around his neck than for him to cause one of these little ones to sin" (Luke 17:1-2).

We are not to be the cause of temptation to sin to anyone; therefore, Jesus warns:

"So watch yourselves.
"If your brother sins, rebuke him, and if he repents, forgive him. If he sins against you seven times in a day, and seven times comes back to you and says, 'I repent,' forgive him." (Luke 17:3-4)

If we fail to forgive someone and act out our unforgiving spirit, it becomes a cause of stumbling for others and this is a serious crime against God. Also, someone who keeps on digging graves and repeating the past matter is not acting out of love but out of a sinful, alienating spirit.

"He who covers a transgression seeks love, but he who repeats a matter separates friends." (Proverbs 17:9)

Therefore, we must be careful in our behavior and attitude (even dressing and eating habits) to not be the cause of temptation or stumbling to anyone.

Now, when it comes to the matter of tempting God, what does that mean? Following are a few things that count as tempting God:

First, the following verses:
So they quarreled with Moses and said, "Give us water to drink."
Moses replied, "Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you put the LORD to the test?" (Exo 17:2)
Do not test the LORD your God as you did at Massah. (Deu 6:16)
But Ahaz said, "I will not ask; I will not put the LORD to the test." (Isa 7:12)
Jesus answered him, "It is also written: 'Do not put the Lord your God to the test.'" (Mat 4:7)
But Jesus, knowing their evil intent, said, "You hypocrites, why are you trying to trap me? (Mat 22:18)
Peter said to her, "How could you agree to test the Spirit of the Lord? Look! The feet of the men who buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out also." (Act 5:9)
Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear? (Act 15:10)
We should not test the Lord, as some of them did--and were killed by snakes. (1Co 10:9)

1. To tempt God means to sin with an attitude that God will overlook the sin (e.g. Ananias and Sapphira). It is trying to tempt God to do something against His righteous and holy nature. God never overlooks sin, though He overlooks times of ignorance.
2. To tempt God means to try to provoke Him to anger by saying or doing foolish things with the attitude that "It is His duty to take care of me" and "God cannot do anything against ME because I am something special." It comes out of taking God's love and kind mercies for granted.
3. To tempt God means to do things out of doubt and unbelief; to try to see if what God said is really true or not despite knowing that His word is logically indubitable. It is like a child who doesn't believe it when his dad says that he will be spanked if he does something wrong. The child tries to check if his dad is really serious and so does the very act. This kind of attitude is very serious when we act in the same way with God. No unbelief is permitted in His presence. It invites the chastening rod of God.
4. When one rebels against God-given authority and conspires against God's anointed ones, one commits the sin of tempting God. It is so because they try to falsely interpret even good actions as wrong and try to paint a wrong picture of godly people before men. This flares up the heavens against their own lives. Do not take the role of God or try to do what rightly belongs to Him. It is He who appoints and He who puts down. Remember David who refused to raise his hand against Saul, though he had turned bad, because He knew Saul was anointed and appointed by God.
5. Tempting God means to try to make God do things in accordance with our will and desire. One may falsely quote scriptures or try various tantrums to provoke Him. Temptation means trying to get someone to do something by trying to excite that person's passions and emotions on behalf of the goal of temptation. It is only human blindness that makes them think that they can tempt God in this way. It brings judgment on self.

The Bible says: "O taste and see that the LORD is good: blessed is the man that trusts in him." (Psalm 34:8). To taste means to come and experience. An ignorant person who doesn't know the Lord comes and experiences Him and knows that He is truly good. He becomes a blessed man since he trusts in Him. However, someone who knows the Lord and then grows irritating, provocative, and lousy with regard to spiritual matters brings disaster on himself. Living in repentance and submission in humility and reverence by living in the presence of God and the fellowship of His Spirit and His Word are necessary for abiding in His grace.
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